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CAMPAIGN PLANNING

Plan, Engage, and Execute - Launch PSA Campaigns That Connect

by Bill Goodwill

Published by PR News

This article discusses the importance of having a solid plan for your PSA campaign including defining your audience, media collaboration tactics, developing a solid distribution plan and tracking performance.

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The 5 P's of TV PSAs

Author: B. Goodwill, Communicator's Guide

Synopsis: This article discusses how Planning, Promotion, Placement, Performance, and Professional Competence can impact your PSA campaign.

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Using PSA Strategy to Generate Media Support

Author: B. Goodwill, Non-Profit Times

Synopsis: A highly competitive environment for PSAs requires organizations seeking airtime and print space to use aggressive, imaginative tactics in developing their campaign plan. Article outlines strategic steps organizations can employ to maximize their campaign exposure.

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Six Tips for Getting Your PSA Aired

Author: Bill Goodwill

Synopsis: Getting your PSAs on the air is getting more difficult than ever, but this article may increase your chances for valuable exposure.

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For Social Cause Advertising, Try 'Disenfranchise Marketing'

Author: Clifford Medney, Public Service Report Newsletter

Synopsis: "Marketing efforts against drug abuse, AIDS and the environment, to name a few, are one-dimensionally skewed from an advertising platform." To be effective, the issue being promoted via PSAs needs to be treated as a product, like a "giant bar of soap out of control" to "disenfranchise" the product from the purchaser."

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Let's Clear The Air About Public Service Announcements

by Jack McGuire

Synopsis: Mass communication expert outlines five major factors to consider when producing PSAs to generate maximum exposure.

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10 Commandments of PSAs

Author: John Paul Kowal, Public Relations Journal

Synopsis: Often, PSAs alienate the audience by instilling guilt, confusion, or leaving a ho-hum impression, but this need not happen if you observe these dos and don'ts.

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CELEBRITIES

In Public Service Ads, Celebrities Can Drum Up Fame or Shame

Published in the Washington Post

Synopsis: Some experts think the public and media need additional incentive to use and view PSAs because when a famous spokesperson appears, you are more likely to pay attention. Others warn that tying a star to a cause may backfire because organizations have no control over the direction of a celebrity's reputation after a spot is completed.

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Kenneth Cole Creates and Launches "We All Have AIDS" Public Service Campaign on World AIDS Day

Synopsis: Media giant Viacom and the Kaiser Family Foundation join together to launch a national public education initiative to address AIDS.

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So You Want Your Spokesperson to Be Famous

Published in PR News

Synopsis: While common wisdom says that celebrity
sells, this article says you should think carefully about using
a celebrity spokesperson for your product, service or cause.

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COMMUNITY OUTREACH

How to Engage Community Partners in Your Issue

Author: Bill Goodwill

Published in Non-Profit Times

Synopsis: Some non-profits with local affiliates or chapters operate independently and some are under fairly tight control of the national office. Either way, it is important to engage your community partners in your PSA campaign and this article explains how to do it.

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Creating a Community Partnership

Author: Bill Goodwill

Synopsis: To the extent you can do it, developing community partnerships between the national office, your local offices and the media will get you much more airtime because the media cares more about local than national issues.

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How to Place PSAs in Your Community

Author: Bill Goodwill

Synopsis: PSA placement - particularly at the local level - requires very specialized expertise and this article provides valuable tips on what works.

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DISTRIBUTION/MEDIA OUTREACH

How Digital Distribution Affects PSAs

Synopsis: Digital distribution of PSAs will impact your PSA campaigns in a variety of ways which are discussed in this article.

Authors: Bill Goodwill and James Baumann

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Recycling PSAs

Synopsis: When you have a modest budget for PSA production, think about think about recycling a PSA you distributed previously.

Author: Bill Goodwill

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CREATIVE PRODUCTION

Creative Considerations

by Bill Goodwill

Ten tips to think about when creating your next PSA campaign.

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How To Make Your PSAs Stand Out In The Crowd

Source: Reprinted with permission from PR Week Newspaper

With all the causes out there, the competition to get a public service announcement aired just gets tougher and tougher. Tony Seideman explores the creative elements you should consider to give your spot some zing - and increase its chances.

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What Factors Make Great PSAs - What to Avoid

The following questions were posed to Bill Goodwill, CEO, Goodwill Communications, Inc. by a reporter for PR News

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What Makes a Successful PSA Campaign?

Author: Dr. Jack Jorgens, Accent Media, McLean, VA

Synopsis: A seasoned producer provides eight key factors to consider when producing and distributing PSAs to the media.

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A Word About Public Service Announcements

Published in Executive Update, the magazine of the
Greater Washington Society of Association Executives.

Authors: Bill Lang & Bill Goodwill

Synopsis: PSAs, strategically created and distributed, can help to achieve organizational marketing goals in a very cost-effective manner while netting millions of comparable advertising dollars in free space and airtime.

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How to Create A Top Notch PSA

Published in PR News

Synopsis: Article highlights various tips and techniques
for maximizing exposure via PSA campaigns.

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EVALUATION

Ten Tips for More Effective TV PSA Campaigns

Synopsis: Practical tips for organizations which distribute PSA campaigns.

Author: Bill Goodwill

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Using PSA Values to Help Your Fund Raising

Synopsis: This important article tells you how you can use your PSA evaluation data to help in your fund raising efforts.

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Why Evaluate Your Campaign?

Synopsis: In this data-driven culture, evaluating your marketing efforts is more important than ever and this article tells why PSA evaluation is so important.

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Tracking PSA Response Via Toll-Free Telephone Numbers

Synopsis: The set up of a toll free phone number for your customers might initially entail some expenses and hassles. But various companies had excellent success with the use of toll free phone numbers in their PSA campaigns.

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How You Can Use Evaluation Data to Fine-Tune Your PSA Program

Author: B. Goodwill, Workshop Handout, NBACA Conference, Houston, TX.

Synopsis: Developing a comprehensive evaluation system for your PSA program is critical to measuring success, and being able to justify the worth of your efforts. The article provides eleven parameters for measuring PSA effectiveness, with graphs for each.

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Defining PSA Success Through Benchmarks

Author: B. Goodwill

Synopsis: Author provides PSA campaign data resulting from 64 TV PSA releases, 21 radio campaigns, 11 print releases and four outdoor campaigns, to establish a benchmark of PSA attainment against which other campaigns can be measured.

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Overcoming Declining PSA Response Rates

Author: B. Goodwill, Public Service Report Newsletter

Synopsis: Article outlines four major reasons for declining PSA response rates where business reply cards are used as the method of evaluation, and four techniques to overcome the problem.

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How a PSA Audit Can Validate Your Success

Synopsis: Your non-profit spends a lot of money on producing and distributing PSAs, but how do you know if they are working to achieve your objectives? This article tells you how to answer the question objectively.

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How to Get Results With PSAs

Author: Margie Goldsmith, Public Relations Journal

Synopsis: PSAs - particularly for TV - have grown substantially in recent years, and this article provides a good overall review of frequency of usage and planning strategies.

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You Can Produce Effective PSAs

Author: William D. Novelli

Synopsis: Despite widespread criticism, public health PSAs can be effective if you maximize your efforts by taking a systematic, evaluative approach to programs. This article was written by one of the most knowledgeable experts in the country on social issues marketing, and was a co-founder of the public relations firm Porter-Novelli.

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The Need for Campaign Standards

Author: Bill Goodwill

Synopsis: Every PSA distributor uses different methodology to evaluate PSA usage, making it impossible to compare the results between one distributor and another. This article calls for a universal standard which would help compare results among different distributors and add more credibility to the PSA evaluation process.

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Are Public Service Ads Effective?

Source: National Crime Prevention Council, Catalyst Newsletter.

Synopsis: This article is a synopsis of a larger and very definitive study regarding the role of public service advertising in deterring crime. The study, entitled "The Social Impact of the National Citizens' Crime Prevention Campaign," was funded by the Justice Department and provides an excellent overview of PSA effectiveness, as well as an extensive bibliography of research studies on the subject.

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ARF Study Shows PSA Impact

Source: Advertising Research Foundation, reprinted in Public Service Report Newsletter

Synopsis: Research conducted by ARF in a study entitled "A Strategic Research Approach to Measuring Ad Effectiveness" concluded that PSAs can induce significant changes in public health behavior. The project was jointly sponsored by the Advertising Council and the American Cancer Society. Objectives of the study included: measuring effects of PSAs on the awareness, beliefs and actions of the target audience; measuring the effects of both average media schedules over time; and creating a research model to aid in evaluating future PSA campaigns.

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PSAs: Do They Really Work?

Author: Bill Goodwill

Source: Capital Communicator Newsletter

Synopsis: Author provides PSA campaign data from a variety of PSA campaigns to demonstrate that PSAs are not shown exclusively in "junk time," that they can stimulate a large volume of calls to 800 numbers, and that they provide a good return on investment.

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PSAs Effective in Getting Out Message

Source: Joann Greco, Special to the Non Profit Times database

Synopsis: PSAs can be effective technique for fund-raising, recruitment, changing misconceptions and compelling people to take action. Author cites a campaign for the National Council on Alcholism as an example of how PSAs have stimulated phone calls and low-budget PSA techniques.

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Don't Make Your Bath Water Too Hot and Keep Your Dogs Away from the Antifreeze

Author: Doug Hill, TV Guide

Public service ads can run at the oddest times on the oddest subjects, but do seem to have an impact, including those campaigns aired by the networks using their own stable of personalities and talent. This article provides several examples of campaigns that have been successful, and how important PSA exposure is to both non-profits and stations.

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MEDIA OUTREACH

How to Place PSAs in Your Community

Author: B. Goodwill, GoodNews Newsletter

Synopsis: A basic primer for non-profit communications staff working at the grass-roots level, which addresses the importance of localism in placing PSAs, tips for localizing national PSAs, formulating contact lists, material formats and evaluating your efforts.

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Network Clearance of Your PSAs

Synopsis: Guidelines on how to approach TV networks when "pitching" your PSA campaign to them.

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PSAs Can Make a Difference, But it Takes Time

Author: Ruth Wooden, Advertising Age

Synopsis: The former president of the Ad Council cites examples such as the United Negro College Fund to illustrate the power of PSAs to raise funds and public awareness, and provides reasons why many PSAs fail to reach their objectives.

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MISCELLANEOUS ARTICLES

Top Ten Trends Affecting PSAs

Author: Bill Goodwill

Synopsis: In spite of the dramatic changes in media habits and an ever changing media landscape, PSAs and traditional media still are viable according to this article.

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Stand Up and Stand Out With PSAs

Author: Jerry Wishnow

Synopsis: This article outlines the most important reasons why the media should use PSAs and helps non-profits understand why they use them in the first place.

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Transition to Digital Broadcasting

Synopsis: The transition to digital broadcasting had a revolutionary impact on all facets of public service advertising as discussed in this article.

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Why You Should Get PSA Bids

Author: Bill Goodwill

Synopsis: If you want to control costs, get the best ideas for your next PSA campaign and impress your boss with your cost containment procedures, then get bids from at least three different distributors.

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Health PSAs: What Does the Future Hold?

Source: Public Service Report Newsletter

Synopsis: A roundtable discussion among 41 health communications practitioners reviewing the PSA environment, new proposals for paid air time and recommendations for future action.

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Behavior Change in the Old and New Eras

Authors: Bill Goodwill and Ken Fischer

Synopsis: This article explores new techniques for audience engagement which can support PSA campaigns.

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A Brief History of Public Service Advertising

Author: Bill Goodwill

Synopsis: Public service advertising is nearly as old as our country itself and This article provides a historical background on how PSAs have been used over the years to accomplish various social objectives.

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The Four R's of Broadcasting & Why They Matter

Author: Bill Goodwill

Synopsis: A detailed discussion of why TV and radio stations use PSAs in spite of the fact that they derive no revenue from them.

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First Ever PSA Conference - Great Ideas, New Directions

Synopsis: The first conference exclusively dedicated to public service advertising was held in Washington, DC to review the entire spectrum of PSAs, addressing what works, new media habits, evaluation procedures and guidelines for PSA network clearance.

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Peddling a Social Cause; Article Review

Source: A. Miller and E. Williams, Newsweek

Synopsis: The advertising community has invested time, talent and other resources to help inform and educate the American public about a wide variety of social causes and it has paid dividends to the advertising agencies as well as the general public

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Education Should Be Sole Purpose of PSAs

Author: Ruth Wooden, Advertising Age
The former president of the Ad Council takes television networks to task for a declining trend in PSA support and rebuts the notion that network promos that air as PSAs or cause related marketing should be counted as PSAs. Article gives specifics on the amount of network support that has been donated by the networks and calls for increased support for important social causes.

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Pro-Bono PSA Campaigns

One way to save tens of thousands of dollars in production expenses for your next PSA campaign is to get production assistance from external organizations and this article explains the details about how to do it.

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PSA Contests

Staging a PSA contest is an inexpensive way to get high-quality PSAs produced and this article covers the advantages to both the non-profit sponsor as well as the student producers.

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Recyling PSAs

If your PSA budget is limited, one way to keep your PSAs on the air at a very low cost is to recyle previously distributed PSAs and this article provides some details to consider.

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OUTDOOR ARTICLES

Outdoor: A New Medium for New Audiences

Author: Bill Goodwill

Synopsis: Once disparaged by environmentalists as "blight on a stick" today's outdoor posters are more creative and showing up every place people congregate.

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Outdoor: Reaching People Where They Live, Work and Play

Author: Bill Goodwill

Synopsis: Not only are outdoor posters ubiquitous; they can also be strategically placed to reach various kinds of audiences as demonstrated by this article..

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Outdoor Advertising: A Medium for All Seasons

By Diane Cimine - Executive Vice President, Marketing, OAAA
Reprinted With Permission

Synopsis: Outdoor advertising is evolving to meet the needs of a different, highly mobile society and a whole new venue of alternative media” is coming on stream.

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Outdoor Types

Author: Bill Goodwill

Synopsis: There are many different types of outdoor posters, ranging from small urban posters to giant digital displays towering over Times Square. This article describes the different types and their advantages.

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Owners Turn Cars Into Moving Messages

Excerpted from The Washington Post

Synopsis: Many people are turning their personal vehicles into rolling billboard advertisements in exchange for monthly payments.

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Outdoor Design Tips

Synopsis: Designing outdoor advertising takes special copywriting and design skills due to the limited time audiences have to view and digest outdoor messages. This article provides tips on how to attract maximum attention with outdoor ads. .

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Outdoor Industry Studies Consumer Response to Medium

Synopsis: The OAAA has retained Sensory Logic to determine how consumers respond to visual cues in outdoor advertising.

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Outdoor Advertising Industry Overview

By Erwin Ephron (partner, Ephron, Papazian & Ephron, Inc

Synopsis: A consultant which has worked closely with the OAAA, discusses the advantages of the outdoor advertising medium.

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Billboards Add New Dimension To World of Multimedia

Excerpted from Wall Street Journal

Synopsis: The intrusiveness of outdoor advertising is a major advantage to many companies, including dot coms in the Silicon Valley.

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The Great Outdoors

Excerpted from Fortune Magazine

Synopsis: Outdoor advertising is being discovered and Wall Street wants a piece of the action.

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PAID COMMERCIALS VS. PSAs

Paid vs PSAs

Author: Bill Goodwill

Synopsis: A few organizations - namely the U.S. military services - have been able to pursue a paid and PSA strategy simultaneously, but there are risks involved, particularly if you do not have a large sustaining paid budget. This article tells about the pitfalls and best approaches to avoid problems.

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Line Between Public Service, Paid Ads Blurs

Source: Advertising Age

Synopsis: Article discusses the controversy surrounding corporations that underwrite PSA campaigns for worthy causes by funneling funds through a non-profit.

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Paid Vs. Donated Media Strategies for PSA Campaigns Review

Authors: John Murry, Jr., Atonie Stam and John Lastovicka, Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 60: 1-29

Synopsis: PSA campaigns have traditionally relied on donated rather than paid advertising media. Recently, however, organizations have questioned whether donated-media strategies should be abandoned for paid campaigns. The article examines this issue in a three-market field experiment comparing the effectiveness of these two methods in decreasing youth drinking and driving. Note: the following abstract reviews the scholarly article.

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Tough Competition for Free Television Time Leads Charities to Weigh Paid Commercials

Author: Elizabeth Klein, The Chronicle of Philanthropy

Synopsis: Stiff competition for public service advertising on television has prompted many major charities to consider paying for broadcast time. This trend marks a major shift in public service advertising. Charities are also using new strategies including asking corporations to buy broadcast time, using consulting companies to distribute PSAs more effectively, and submitting PSAs to more cable television networks. Charities now face competition from state agencies and from "mega-campaigns" created by coalitions of non-profit groups and government agencies.

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PROMOTION

Does Promotion Really Work?

Author: Bill Goodwill

Synopsis: Aggressively promoting your campaign can add significant value to your results.

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What is it You Want to Sell Me?

Author: Bill Goodwill

Synopsis: People do not donate money to charities that they do not know and trust. This article tells about how PSAs and promotion can help you build a stronger brand image.

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RADIO

Ten Tips for More Effective Radio PSA Campaigns

Synopsis: Practical tips for organizations who are planning radio PSA campaigns.

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How to Launch a Record Radio PSA

Author: Suzanne Cale Young

Synopsis: This article shows what can be achieved when all the pieces come together to form a solid strategy for radio - great creative, media flexibility, a partnership with Clear Channel, a plan to engage community partners and thorough evaluation.

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Marketing Your Message via Radio PSAs

Author: Bill Goodwill

Source: Government Communicator Magazine

Synopsis: Radio has many advantages for PSA campaigns, including lower production costs, the ability to target specific types of audiences and other benefits.

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Planning Your Radio PSA - A Producer's Checklist

Author: Bill Goodwill

Synopsis: A checklist of all the steps you need to follow to create a successful radio PSA.

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TELEVISION

The 5 P's of TV PSAs

Author: B. Goodwill,

Synopsis: This article discusses how Planning, Promotion, Placement, Performance, and Professional Competence can impact your PSA campaign.

Click here to view the article

Six Tips for Getting Your PSA Aired

Author: Bill Goodwill

Synopsis: Getting your PSAs on the air is getting more difficult than ever, but this article may increase your chances for valuable exposure.

Click here to view the article

Network Clearance

Author: Bill Goodwill

Synopsis: Usage of your TV PSAs on national networks can add a huge amount of exposure to your PSA campaign, but you have to know the rules for getting on the air which are explained in this article.

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Transition to Digital Broadcasting

Synopsis: The transition to digital broadcasting has had a revolutionary impact on all facets of public service advertising - particularly TV - as discussed in this article.

Author: Bill Goodwill

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How Digital Distribution Affects PSAs

Synopsis: Digital distribution of PSAs will impact your PSA campaigns in a variety of ways which are discussed here.

Authors: Bill Goodwill and James Baumann

Click here to view the article

Recyling PSAs

Author: Bill Goodwill

Synopsis: If your PSA budget is limited, one way to keep your PSAs on the air at a very low cost is to recyle previously distributed PSAs and this article provides some details to consider.

Click here to view the article

Ten Tips for More Effective TV PSA Campaigns

Author: Bill Goodwill

Synopsis: Practical tips for organizations which distribute PSA campaigns.

Click here to view the article

Using PSA Values to Help Your Fund Raising

Synopsis: This important article tells you how you can use your PSA evaluation data to help in your fund raising efforts.

Author: Bill Goodwill

Click here to view the article

Tracking PSA Response Via Toll-Free Telephone Numbers

Author: Bill Goodwill

Synopsis: Establishing a toll free phone number to track responses to your PSA campaign entails some hassles. But some nonprofits had excellent success with the use of toll free phone numbers in their PSA campaigns because they can document their success.

Click here to view the article

The Four R's of Broadcasting & Why They Matter

Author: Bill Goodwill

Synopsis: A detailed discussion of why TV and radio stations use PSAs in spite of the fact that they derive no revenue from them.

Click here to view the article

PSA Contests

Author: Bill Goodwill

Staging a PSA contest is an inexpensive way to get high-quality PSAs produced and this article covers the advantages to both the non-profit sponsor as well as the student producers.

Click here to view the article

Recyling PSAs

Author: Bill Goodwill

If your PSA budget is limited, one way to keep your PSAs on the air at a very low cost is to recyle previously distributed PSAs and this article provides some details to consider.

Click here to view the article